Bullying

Bullying and Its affect on Education Aggressive and violent behavior among school pupils has become a research and public policy priority, owing to Its consequences for children’s and young people’s development and academic performance and outcomes. This type of conduct, which is becoming a daily occurrence in schools and is known and to some extent sanctioned by adults and the students themselves, flies in the face of what is expected from school: a place where young citizens receive ethical, moral, emotional and cognitive education.

It also seriously Jeopardizes the school’s possibility of acting s a forum for the exchange of knowledge in a healthy and socially democratic and fair environment. Students must be able to learn without fear in a secure and reliable environment In order to build skills of all types and absorb the learning they need to develop comprehensively and participate fully In society.

Authors who have studied school bullying in order to understand or try to prevent it, or both, agree that Losses was the first researcher to develop a framework and a set of criteria for describing violent behavior among peers In the school setting. In the 1 sass, Losses (1978) raised the alert by denouncing aggression and abuse as a moon and systemic practice among pupils in Norwegian schools. Today this phenomenon is known universally as “bullying”, which refers to different types of repeatedly occurring Intimidation, harassment, abuse, mistreatment and valuation (Rugby, 1996: Garcia, 201 0).

Bullying refers to repeated and ongoing situations of injustice and abuse of power (psychological or physical) and it has different, though all equally worrying, consequences for the students involved (Losses, 1989, 1993, 1998; smith and Sharpe, 1994; coed, 2004; Cicero, 2006; Scrapple, 2008). The available evidence distinguishes at least three actors In peer tuitions: (I) the student or students who do the harassing or bullying; (ii) the student or students who are harassed or bullied; and (iii) the students who see or are otherwise aware of the bullying (Schafer and others, 2005).

As many as six roles may be Identified If we Include those who assist the perpetrator. Reinforces of bullying and defenders of victims (Rugby, 2003; Endured and Metalloid, 2004; Ere and Ortega, 2007; Sleek and Molar, 2007). At the root of these behaviors lie cultural patterns of domination and submission among peers living closely together on a daily basis In Institutionalized environments.

The literature Identifies four mall forms of bullying: physical, verbal, psychological and social (Rivers and Smith, 1994; Spillages and swears, 2003; smith, 2003; Avail┬ęs, 2005; Cicero, 2006). Climate, school culture and bullying Researching the form or magnitude of violence among students within schools 1 OFF bullying is a complex phenomenon arising in discontent of daily life in the school and therefore within the framework of the rules, routines, processes, systems of interaction and exchange, subjectivists and cultural patterns of each institution.

Underlying violent conduct are the behaviors, beliefs and attitudes of all the actors involved, be they affection, regard, satisfaction, friendship, collaboration or tolerance, as well as dislike, prejudice, discrimination, exclusion and intolerance (Ortega, 2000; Superfine, Alternated and Bleat, 2001; Lukas and Robinson, 2004; Playa and others, 2006; Gazelle, 2006). So bullying and its various forms are an integral part of the school and classroom life and climate which pupils live and breathe.

They affect and impinge not only upon the well-being of every member of the educational community, but also upon their practices and performance. The universal presence and magnitude of school bullying and, above al, its consequences for the socio-affective and cognitive development of students, make it a priority in the analysis of school climate and coexistence, which are key to students’ learning and development (Ortega, 2005; Orphans and Horn, 2006).

Bullying and school achievement: the international vaudevillians as a phenomenon has been extensively researched and analyses over the past two decades, mainly from the standpoint of psychology and educational sociology. From a psychological perspective, attention has centered on practices and behaviors which are associated with and involved in peer reassessment, especially aggressive and violent conduct and the problems of different types of factorization and their psychological and social consequences for victims (Hawker and Bolton, 2000; Spillages, Holt and Hinkle, 2003; Rugby, 2003; Pepper and Lasers, 2006).

From the sociological perspective, efforts have been made to identify the social factors associated with bullying (poverty, social exclusion, youth delinquency, drug and alcohol consumption, youth culture), aiming to recognize and prevent bullying and reduce high-risk behavior (Martinez-Otter, 2005; Playa and others, 2006; Barker and there, 2008). We know that peer violence and bullying is not a new or isolated phenomenon and it is not confined to certain schools or countries (Broadway and Aura, 2005; Berger, Ordain and Karamazov, 2008; Plan International, 2008).

Bullying is a common and cross-cutting phenomenon that affects a large percentage of students as victims (the majority), perpetrators or observers or spectators and it has been documented in many works of research in different countries and world regions (Losses, 1978, 1993; Schafer and others, 2005; Ortega, 2005; Playa and others, 2006; Smith, Suntan and Kook, 2007).

The most common and frequent forms of bullying found in the evidence are insults, name-calling and nicknames; hitting, direct aggression and theft; and threats, rumor-spreading and social exclusion or isolation (Whitney and Smith, 1993; whereby pupils are bullied and denigrated in different ways using mobile phones, websites, blobs, social networks such as Backbone, Hi and Twitter, Youth and other media that are used and shared by school communities on the Internet (Scrappier, 2008). Sex and age are factors in the magnitude and type of bullying.

Male students are more likely to be involved in physical bullying (hitting), while female dents are more likely to engage in social or psychological bullying (Scrappier, 2008). Bullying decreases for both sexes at higher levels of schooling (Pipelining and Long, 2002; Take, Price and Tell]onion, 2003; Smith, 2003). The first works of research on the magnitude of bullying in Europe include Whitney and Smith (1993), which found a factorization rate of 10% for the United Kingdom, with 6% admitting to being aggressors.

Ten years later, Take, Price and Theologian (2003) found bullying rates in European primary schools varying from 11% in Finland to 49% in Ireland, while in the United States the rate was nearly 20%. In Spain, one in four pupils experiences school bullying, with a rate seven times higher in primary school than in secondary school and the main type of violence being psychological (Boors, 2005). Len Australia, 17. 4% of pupils aged 7 to 9 reported serious bullying, and 31% reported having suffered mild bullying (Scrappier, 2008).

Recent figures released by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (coed, 2009) on its member countries show that an average of 26% suffer bullying in primary school, 20% in lower secondary and 10% in upper secondary. Studies conducted in Latin America also how differences between countries and levels of schooling. For example, 11% of students in Mexican primary schools have stolen something from or threatened a classmate, and Just over 7% have done so in secondary school (Agiler, Munson and Rocco, 2007).

In other words, the education system and schools must not only take responsibility in preventing and reducing bullying, but also hold themselves accountable for its origin and forms of expression. Relevant and differentiated strategies for preventing and reducing bullying In the past few years many programmed and policies have been put in place with the aim of improving the day-to-day relations within schools. Most of these, however, focus on the institution and seek to regulate ?through teaching staff? acceptable and desirable student behavior.

It is quite clear that these strategies will not work unless they are designed and built in way that is student-centered, based on the dynamics and subjectivists of students and their interests, motivations, strengths and weaknesses. School bullying also needs to be approached differently depending on the level of schooling, the school setting and the gender of the students. The outcomes of this research confirm international findings on the alarming figures relating to bullying in primary schools, and the differences in the type of violence between boys and girls and between rural and urban schools.